The full range of stamp collecting tools and aids, e.g. tweezers, hinge mounts, perforation gauges, catalogues, stock books, catalogues and books etc. is called accessories or tools.
A stamp has to be affixed to a letter. This is done by means of gum.
There are two types of gum: Gum you have to lick to make it stick and self-adhesive.
Sometimes the stamp is already printed on the envelope, postcard or wrapper. In that case no stamp has to be
affixed to the letter.
Instructions in the margins of sheets of early British stamps advised: "In wetting the back be careful not to remove the cement (gum)".
Air letter sheets are usually impressed with a stamp. This letter sheet can be used to write a letter to a foreign
country. Because mailing by air is much more expensive the aerogramme became successful.
No envelope is used (the letter can simply be folded) and therefore an aerogramme is not so heavy and the
postage due is not so expensive as would be the case when a letter is sent.
In The Netherlands the first official aerogramme was issued in 1947.
The study and collecting of air stamps, envelopes etc. is called aero-philately. Collectors seek for envelopes etc. which realise a view on the former and existing air lines.
An agency is a Post Office maintained by one country on the territory of another country.
Airmail is carriage of mail by an aircraft. The first successful mail flight was in 1911 when a flight was organised at the Allahabad Exhibition in India. The flight went from Allahabad to Naini (ten kilometres south of Allahabad) and was flown with a Humber biplane. For this occasion special postmarks were made on which an aircraft was pictured . In 1961 India issued three stamps in remembrance of this flight.
In September 1911 the official airmail was established in Great Britain, Denmark, Italy and the United States of America.
A stamp issued expressly for use on mail transported by air. When the air routes were being developed in the 1930s some countries issued long series of stamps. Nowadays in most countries generally only one or two stamps are in use.
Sometimes air stamps were used to pay an additionally fee and in other cases special air mail stamps had to be used for letters sent by air mail.
In Holland only 16 air mail stamps were issued, mostly bearing the text "bijzondere vluchten" (special flights) or "luchtpost" (air mail). The first Dutch air stamps were issued in 1921 and at first were only applied to pay for an extra fee. Later all Dutch airmail stamps could also be applied for normal postal use.
In The Netherlands no special air mail stamps are in use at the moment.
Impression without colour from an uninked stamp die or plate.
If you just started your collection you should buy a regular album that fits your needs. Don't buy the expensive ones. You can buy an expensive one later, as you get more into depth with the concept of stamp collecting.
It's very important not to keep an album in a hot or damp area around your house. The best place to keep it is in a drawer or any cool place in your house.
Of course It is important to keep your album clean. Dirt or residue can seep through the album cover and damage your stamps.
There are all sorts of albums. The traditional beginner's album has fixed leaves headed with names of countries. Better is to buy an album in which you are able to insert pages, because your collection will grow.
Types of albums: World, Country specific, Thematic, Plain.
After a while you will find out that a plain loose-leaf album suits you best, because you will be able to arrange your stamps exactly as you please. Of course it is nice to write comments and other desired notes on your pages.
In this way your collection gets a personal touch and will be interesting to others!
Aniline colors are distilled from coal-tar. Ink made of these colors is used as the basis of certain dyes in postage stamps. Aniline ink immediately penetrates between the fibres of uncoated paper.
Aniline has been used particular to produce a bright-red ink. Aniline is soluble in water and the colour shows through the back of the stamp.
Aniline ink has been used in printing Roosevelt small dies proofs.
Arabic gum was widely used as an adhesive till 1970. This gum is applied as a glossy coating. The gum is transparent when pure, but yellowish when less highly refined.
Arabic gum is made of a substance obtained from the acacia tree and therefore often called "gum acacia".
The Irishmen Henry Archer, who worked for the railways, is considered to be the inventor of perforation. He sold his patents to the British Ministry of Finance. Archer completed thereafter his invention. Some prototypes were build. The greatest problem was how to get rid of the remains from the holes. These little pieces of paper caused the machine to a standstill over and over.
Stamps which were part of these trials were sold at the post offices during the years 1848-1850. These are regarded to be the first perforated stamps.
In 1850 Archer finished his trials. The State Printing works further developed the perforation machines made by David Napier & Sons.
From 1854 onwards only perforated stamps were issued in Great Britain. In The Netherlands the first perforated stamps were issued in 1864.
Arrows and similar marks are printed in the margins of sheets as register marks for printer and perforator. These marks are also used as guides in dividing up sheets.
Automatic perforation is perforation made by early types of vending or affixing machines. Stamps were supplied in rolls or coils for use in different types of these machines.
In the early experimental types of these machines the stamps were supplied imperforate or perforated in one direction only. The machine executed a perforation at its delivery end.
Many collectors are familiar with the automatic perforation which was used by the US postal authorities. But it was used in other countries too.